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Dawkins Devil S Chaplain Pdf Free

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.. /%E2%80%A6ut/ADevilsChaplain.html. Richard Dawkins A Devil's Chaplain (2003). Richard Dawkins - A Devils Chaplain (2003).pdf(7.5MB) . 2008-2015ICP120047111101082111 . BigWhiteMa. Thats all we know.. > / Richard Dawkins - A Devils Chaplain (2003).pdf 4.9 M (0) MDD >>Ta 325 7 71 0 >> VIP                wap            Archive 2017 vdisksina.cn [2011]0398-130 ICP100780 . TXT DOC PDF PPT .

 

Copyright 1996-2016 IASK Corporation, All Right Reserved . su . IT IT IT Q OL OL OL V . Dennett [] Freakonomics - A 434 1.2MB [] What Evolution I 777 5.6MB [] Contact.pdf 394 1.1MB [] John Maynard Smi 457 1.4MB [] Richard.Dawkins.        / 269       . Richard Dawkins - A Devils Chaplain (2003).pdf Richard Dawkins - A Devils Cha rgw87 794 0 2009-11-12 AuthorofUnweavingtheRainbowandTheAncestor'sTaleRICHARDDAWKINSADEVIL'SCHAPLAINFLECTIONSONHOPE,LIES,SCIENcfNt4JDL0VE-NEWYORKTIMESBOOK^fcEVIEWAsuperbwriter.Dawkinsunashamedlyandgloriouslydelightsinscience."-NEWREPUBLICMARINERBOOKSPraiseforRichardDawkinsandADEVIL'SCHAPLAIN"Oneofthebest-knownscientistsandwritersofourtime.Daw-kinsunashamedlyandgloriouslydelightsinscience.Ifanythingissacredtohimitisthetruthandthepatientroadtoit.Heisasuperbwriter,andagreatadvocateforsanity,andanendlesslyinformativeresource."NewRepublic"Dawkins.isamanoffirmopinions,whichheexpresseswithclarityandpunch."ScientificAmerican"Outstandinglygood.Whatunifiestheessaysisalsowhatani-matesthem:aspiritofeducatedclarity,ofintellectualprobity,oftruthandcourage.Heisajoytoread,notonlyforthebeautyofhisprosebutfortheeleganceandpowerofhisarguments."LiteraryReview"Scienceasasourceofjoyshinesthroughthesepages.Thelucid-nessofhisvisionisextraordinary."TimeOut"Thiscollectionofessayspennedbyoneoftheworld'spreeminentevolutionarybiologistsplumbstheauthor'scommitmenttoscien-tifictruthpursuedthroughsolidevidenceandreason."ScienceNews"Dawkins'senthusiasmforthediversityoflifeonthisplanetshouldprovecontagious."PublishersWeekly"Apleasure-inducingvoyageintoscientificprinciples.brilliantlypresentedandcelebrated."KirkusReviews"Afierceadvocateofempiricalscienceoversuperstition.Evenathismostuncompromising,heevokesasinceresenseofwonderatthephysicalworld."LibraryJournal,selectedasaBestSci-TechBookoftheYearTBooksbyRichardDawkinsTheSelfishGeneTheExtendedPhenotypeTheBlindWatchmakerRiverOutofEdenClimbingMountImprobableUnweavingtheRainbowADevil'sChaplainTheAncestor'sTaleADEVIL'SCHAPLAINREFLECTIONSONHOPE,LIES,SCIENCE,ANDLOVERichardDawkinsAMarinerBookHoughtonMifflinCompanyBoston-NewYorkFirstMarinerBooksedition2004Copyright2003byRichardDawkinsAllrightsreservedForinformationaboutpermissiontoreproduceselectionsfromthisbook,writetoPermissions,HoughtonMifflinCompany,215ParkAvenueSouth,NewYork,NewYork10003.VisitourWebsite:www.houghtonmifflinbooks.com.LibraryofCongressCataloging-in-PublicationDataDawkins,Richard,1941-Adevil'schaplain:reflectionsonhope,lies,science,andlove/RichardDawkins.p.cm.Includesbibliographicalreferencesandindex.ISBN0-618-33540-4ISBN0-618-48539-2(pbk.)1.Evolution(Biology)2.SciencePhilosophy.3.Religionandscience.I.Title.QH366.2.D3732003500dc212003050859PrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaQUM1098765432Theauthorisgratefulforpermissiontoreprintthefollowing:"WhatIsTrue?":publishedas"HallofMirrors"inForbesASAP,October2,2000.ReprintedbypermissionofForbesASAP,2003ForbesInc."CrystallineTruthandCrystalBalls":publishedintheSundayTelegraph.CopyrightRichardDawkins/TelegraphGroupLtd.1998."PostmodernismDisrobed":reprintedbypermissionfromNature394,pp.141-3(1998).Copyright1998MacmillanPublishersLtd."DarwinTriumphant":fromManandBeastRevisited,editedbyMichaelH.RobinsonandLionelTiger,SmithsonianInstitutionPress,Washington,D.C.Copyright1991bySmithsonianInstitution.Usedbypermissionofthepublisher."TheInformationChallenge":originallypublishedinDecember1998intheofficialjournalofAustralianskeptics,TheSkeptic,vol.18,no.4.Reprintedbypermission."SonofMoore'sLaw":fromTheNextFiftyYears,editedbyJ.Brockman,VintageBooks,RandomHouse,Inc.ReprintedbypermissionofVintageBooks."ChineseJunkandChineseWhispers":publishedastheforewordtoTheMemeMachinebySusanBlackmore,OxfordUniversityPress,1999.ReprintedbypermissionofOxfordUniversityPress."VirusesoftheMind":publishedinDennettandHisCritics:DemystifyingMind,editedbyB.Dahlbom,Blackwell,1993.ReprintedbypermissionofBlackwellPublishing."TheGreatConvergence":publishedas"SnakeOilandHolyWater"inForbesASAP,October4,1999.ReprintedbypermissionofForbesASAP,2003ForbesInc."RejoicinginMultifariousNature":reprintedbypermissionfromNature276,pp.121-3(1978).Copyright1978MacmillanPublishersLtd."HumanChauvinism":reprintedbypermissionfromEvolution51,no.3,pp.1015-20(1997)."TheLionChildren":publishedastheforewordtoTheLionChildren,byAngus,Maisie,andTraversMcNeice,OrionPublishingGroup,2001.ReprintedbypermissionoftheOrionPublishingGroupLtd.CONTENTSIntroductiontotheAmericanEdition11ScienceandSensibility51.1ADevil'sChaplain81.2WhatisTrue?141.3GapsintheMind201.4Science,GeneticsandEthics:MemoforTonyBlair271.5TrialByJury381.6CrystallineTruthandCrystalBalls421.7PostmodernismDisrobed471.8TheJoyofLivingDangerously:SandersonofOundle542LightWillBeThrown612.1LightWillBeThrown632.2DarwinTriumphant782.3The'InformationChallenge'912.4GenesAren'tUs1042.5SonofMoore'sLaw1073TheInfectedMind1173.1ChineseJunkandChineseWhispers1193.2VirusesoftheMind1283.3TheGreatConvergence1463.4DollyandtheClothHeads1523.5TimetoStandUp156CEOHervorheben4TheyToldMe,Heraclitus1634.1LamentforDouglas1654.2EulogyforDouglasAdams1684.3EulogyforW.D.Hamilton1714.4SnakeOil1795EventheRanksofTuscany1875.1RejoicinginMultifariousNature1905.2TheArtoftheDevelopable1945.3Hallucigenia,WiwaxiaandFriends2035.4HumanChauvinismandEvolutionaryProgress2065.5UnfinishedCorrespondencewithaDarwinianHeavyweight2186ThereisAllAfricaandherProdigiesinUs2236.1EcologyofGenes2256.2OutoftheSoulofAfrica2286.3ISpeakofAfricaandGoldenJoys2316.4HeroesandAncestors2347APrayerforMyDaughter2417.1GoodandBadReasonsforBelieving242Endnotes249Index256viForJulietonherEighteenthBirthdayIINTRODUCTIONTOTHEAMERICANEDITIONThisbookisapersonalselectionfromamongallthearticlesandlec-tures,tiradesandreflections,bookreviewsandforewords,tributesandeulogiesthatIhavepublished(orinsomecasesnotpublished)over25years.Therearemanythemeshere,somearisingoutofDarwinismorscienceingeneral,someconcernedwithmorality,somewithreligion,education,justice,mourning,Africa,historyofscience,somejustplainpersonal-orwhatthelateCarlSaganmighthavecalledloveletterstoscienceandrationality.ThoughIadmittooccasionalflamesof(entirelyjustified)irritationinmywriting,Iliketothinkthatthegreaterpartofitisgood-humoured,perhapsevenhumorous.Wherethereispassion,well,thereismuchtobepassionateabout.Wherethereisanger,Ihopeitisacontrolledanger.Wherethereissadness,Ihopeitneverspillsoverintodespairbutstilllookstothefuture.Butmostlyscienceis,forme,asourceoflivingjoy,andIhopeitshowsinthesepages.Thebookisdividedintosevensections,chosenandarrangedbythecompilerLathaMenoninclosecollaborationwithme.Withallthepolymathic,literateintelligenceyouwouldexpectoftheexecutiveeditorofEncartaEncyclopedia'sWorldEnglishEdition,Lathahasprovedtobeaninspiredanthologist.Ihavewrittenpreamblestoeachofthesevensections,inwhichIhavereflectedonthepiecesLathathoughtworthyofreprintingandtheconnectionsamongthem.Herswasthedifficulttask,andIamfilledwithadmirationforhersimultaneousgraspofvastlymoreofmywritingsthanareherereproduced,andfortheskillwithwhichsheachievedasubtlerbalanceofthemthanIthoughttheypossessed.Butasforwhatshehadtochoosefrom,theresponsibilityis,ofcourse,mine.Itisnotpossibletolistallthepeoplewhohelpedwiththeindividualpieces,spreadastheyareover25years.HelpwiththebookitselfcamefromYanWong,ChristineDeBlase-Ballstadt,MichaelDover,LauravanlDam,CatherineBradley,AnthonyCheethamand,ofcourse,LathaMenonherself.MygratitudetoCharlesSimonyi-somuchmorethanabenefactor-isunabated.Andmywife,LallaWard,continuestolendherencouragement,heradviceandherfine-tunedearforthemusicoflanguage.RichardDawkinsADEVIL'SCHAPLAINilljstiiSCIENCEANDSENSIBILITYThefirstessayinthisvolume,ADevil'sChaplain(1.1),hasnotpreviouslybeenpublished.Thetitle,borrowedbythebook,isexplainedintheessayitself.Thesecondessay,WhatisTrue?(1.2),wasmycontributiontoasymposiumofthatname,inForbesASAPmagazine.Scientiststendtotakearobustviewoftruthandareimpatientofphilosophicalequivocationoveritsrealityorimportance.It'shardenoughcoaxingnaturetogiveuphertruths,withoutspectatorsandhangers-onstrewinggratuitousobstaclesinourway.Myessayarguesthatweshouldatleastbeconsistent.Truthsabouteverydaylifearejustasmuch-oraslittle-opentophilosophicaldoubtasscientifictruths.Letusshundoublestandards.AttimesIfearturningintoadoublestandardsbore.Itstartedinchild-hoodwhenmyfirsthero,DoctorDolittle(hereturnedirresistiblytomindwhenIreadtheNaturalist'sVoyageofmyadulthero,CharlesDarwin),raisedmyconsciousness,toborrowausefulpieceoffeministjargon,aboutourtreatmentofanimals.Non-humananimalsIshouldsay,for,ofcourse,weareanimals.Themoralphilosophermostjustlycreditedwithraisingtoday'sconsciousnessinthisdirectionisPeterSinger,latelymovedfromAustraliatoPrinceton.HisTheGreatApeProjectaimstowardsgrantingtheothergreatapes,asnearasispracticallypossible,civilrightsequivalenttothoseenjoyedbythehumangreatape.Whenyoustopandaskyourselfwhythisseemssoimmediatelyridiculous,theharderyouthink,thelessridiculousitseems.Cheapcrackslike'Isupposeyou'llneedreinforcedballot-boxesforgorillas,then?'aresoondispatched:wegiverights,butnotthevote,tochildren,lunaticsandMembersoftheHouseofLords.ThebiggestobjectiontotheGAPis'Wherewillitallend?Rightsforoysters?'(BertrandRussell'squip,inasimilarcontext).Wheredoyoudrawtheline?GapsintheMind(1.3),myowncontributiontotheGAPbook,usesanevolutionaryargumenttoshowthatweshouldnotbeinthebusinessofdrawinglinesinthefirstplace.There'snolawofnaturethatsaysboundarieshavetobeclear-cut.5SCIENCEANDSENSIBILITYInDecember2000IwasamongthoseinvitedbyDavidMilibandMP,thenHeadofthePrimeMinister'sPolicyUnitandnowMinisterforSchoolStandards,towriteamemoonaparticularsubjectforTonyBlairtoreadovertheChristmasholiday.MybriefwasScience,Genetics,RiskandEthics(1.4)andIreproducemy(previouslyunpublished)contributionhere(eliminatingRiskandsomeotherpassagestoavoidoverlapwithotheressays).Anyproposaltocurtail,inthesmallestdegree,therightoftrialbyjuryisgreetedwithwailsofaffront.OnthethreeoccasionswhenIhavebeencalledtoserveonajury,theexperienceproveddisagreeableanddis-illusioning.Muchlater,twogrotesquelyover-publicizedtrialsintheUnitedStatespromptedmetothinkthroughacentralreasonformydistrustofthejurysystem,andtowriteitdownasTrialByJury(1.5).Crystalsarefirstoutoftheboxoftrickstotedbypsychics,mystics,mediumsandothercharlatans.MypurposeinthenextarticlewastoexplaintherealmagicofcrystalstothereadersofaLondonnewspaper,theSundayTelegraph.Atonetimeitwasonlythelow-gradetabloidnewspapersthatencouragedpopularsuperstitionslikecrystal-gazingorastrology.Nowadayssomeup-marketnewspapers,includingtheTelegraph,havedumbeddowntotheextentofprintingaregularastrologycolumn,whichiswhyIacceptedtheirinvitationtowriteCrystallineTruthandCrystalBalls(1.6).Amoreintellectualspeciesofcharlatanisthetargetofthenextessay,PostmodernismDisrobed(1.7).Dawkins'LawoftheConservationofDifficultystatesthatobscurantisminanacademicsubjectexpandstofillthevacuumofitsintrinsicsimplicity.Physicsisagenuinelydifficultandprofoundsubject,sophysicistsneedto-anddo-workhardtomaketheirlanguageassimpleaspossible('butnosimpler,'rightlyinsistedEinstein).Otheracademics-somewouldpointthefingeratcontinentalschoolsofliterarycriticismandsocialscience-sufferfromwhatPeterMedawar(Ithink)calledPhysicsEnvy.Theywanttobethoughtprofound,buttheirsubjectisactuallyrathereasyandshallow,sotheyhavetolanguageituptoredressthebalance.ThephysicistAlanSokalperpetratedablissfullyfunnyhoaxontheEditorial'Collective'(whatelse?)ofaparticularlypretentiousjournalofsocialstudies.Afterwards,togetherwithhiscolleagueJeanBricmont,hepublishedabook,IntellectualImpostures,ablydocumentingthisepidemicofFashionableNonsense(astheirbookwasretitledintheUnitedStates).'PostmodernismDisrobed'ismyreviewofthishilariousbutdisquietingbook.Imustadd,thefactthattheword'postmodernism'occursinthetitlegivenmebytheEditorsofNaturedoesnotimplythatI(orthey)knowwhatitmeans.Indeed,itismybeliefthatitmeansnothingatall,exceptinthe6SCIENCEANDSENSIBILITYrestrictedcontextofarchitecturewhereitoriginated.Irecommendthefollowingpractice,wheneveranybodyusesthewordinsomeothercontext.Stoptheminstantlyandask,inaneutralspiritoffriendlycuriosity,whatitmeans.NeveroncehaveIheardanythingthatevenremotelyapproachesausable,orevenfaintlycoherent,definition.Thebestyou'llgetisanervoustitterandsomethinglike,'YesIagree,itisaterriblewordisn'tit,butyouknowwhatImean.'Wellno,actually,Idon't.Asalifelongteacher,Ifretaboutwherewegowrongineducation.Ihearhorrorstoriesalmostdailyofambitiousparentsorambitiousschoolsruiningthejoyofchildhood.Anditstartswretchedlyearly.Asix-year-oldboyreceives'counselling'becauseheis'worried'thathisperformanceinmathematicsisfallingbehind.Aheadmistresssummonstheparentsofalittlegirltosuggestthatsheshouldbesentforexternaltuition.Theparentsexpostulatethatitistheschool'sjobtoteachthechild.Whyisshefallingbehind?Sheisfallingbehind,explainstheheadmistresspatiently,becausetheparentsofalltheotherchildrenintheclassarepayingforthemtogotoexternaltutors.Itisnotjustthejoyofchildhoodthatisthreatened.Itisthejoyoftrueeducation:ofreadingforthesakeofawonderfulbookratherthanforanexam;offollowingupasubjectbecauseitisfascinatingratherthanbecauseitisonasyllabus;ofwatchingagreatteacher'seyeslightupforsheerloveofthesubject.TheJoyofLivingDangerously:SandersonofOundle(1.8)isanattempttobringbackfromthepastthespiritofjustsuchagreatteacher.78%:IADevil'sChaplainDarwinwaslessthanhalfjokingwhenhecoinedthephraseDevil'sChaplaininalettertohisfriendHookerin1856.WhatabookaDevil'sChaplainmightwriteontheclumsy,wasteful,blunderinglowandhorridlycruelworksofnature.Aprocessoftrialanderror,completelyunplannedandonthemassivescaleofnaturalselection,canbeexpectedtobeclumsy,wastefulandblundering.Ofwastethereisnodoubt.AsIhaveputitbefore,theracingeleganceofcheetahsandgazellesisboughtathugecostinbloodandthesufferingofcountlessantecedentsonbothsides.Clumsyandblunderingthoughtheprocessundoubtedlyis,itsresultsareopposite.Thereisnothingclumsyaboutaswallow;nothingblunderingaboutashark.Whatisclumsyandblundering,bythestandardsofhumandrawingboards,istheDarwinianalgorithmthatledtotheirevolution.Asforcruelty,hereisDarwinagain,inalettertoAsaGrayof1860:IcannotpersuademyselfthatabeneficentandomnipotentGodwouldhavedesignedlycreatedtheIchneumonidaewiththeexpressintentionoftheirfeedingwithinthelivingbodiesofCaterpillars.Darwin'sFrenchcontemporaryJeanHenriFabredescribedsimilarbehaviourinadiggerwasp,Ammophila:Itisthegeneralrulethatlarvaepossessacentreofinnervationforeachsegment.ThisissoinparticularwiththeGreyWorm,thesacrificialvictimoftheHairyAmmophila.TheWaspisacquaintedwiththisanatomicalsecret:shestabsthecaterpillaragainandagain,fromendtoend,segmentbysegment,ganglionbyganglion.1Darwin'sIchneumonidae,likeFabre'sdiggerwasps,stingtheirpreynottokillbuttoparalyse,sotheirlarvaecanfeedonfresh(live)meat.As8ADEVIL'SCHAPLAINDarwinclearlyunderstood,blindnesstosufferingisaninherentcon-sequenceofnaturalselection,althoughonotheroccasionshetriedtoplaydownthecruelty,suggestingthatkillingbitesaremercifullyswift.ButtheDevil'sChaplainwouldbeequallyswifttopointoutthatifthereismercyinnature,itisaccidental.Natureisneitherkindnorcruelbutindifferent.Suchkindnessasmayappearemergesfromthesameimperativeasthecruelty.InthewordsofoneofDarwin'smostthoughtfulsuccessors,GeorgeC.Williams2,Withwhatotherthancondemnationisapersonwithanymoralsensesupposedtorespondtoasysteminwhichtheultimatepurposeinlifeistobebetterthanyourneighboratgettinggenesintofuturegenerations,inwhichthosesuccess-fulgenesprovidethemessagethatinstructsthedevelopmentofthenextgeneration,inwhichthatmessageisalways'exploityourenvironment,includ-ingyourfriendsandrelatives,soastomaximizeourgenes'success',inwhichtheclosestthingtoagoldenruleis'don'tcheat,unlessitislikelytoprovideanetbenefit'?BernardShawwasdriventoembraceaconfusedideaofLamarckianevolutionpurelybecauseofDarwinism'smoralimplications.Hewrote,inthePrefacetoBacktoMethuselah:Whenitswholesignificancedawnsonyou,yourheartsinksintoaheapofsandwithinyou.Thereisahideousfatalismaboutit,aghastlyanddamnablereductionofbeautyandintelligence,ofstrengthandpurpose,ofhonorandaspiration.HisDevil'sDisciplewasanaltogetherjollierroguethanDarwin'sChaplain.Shawdidn'tthinkofhimselfasreligious,buthehadthatchildlikeinabilitytodistinguishwhatistruefromwhatwe'dliketobetrue.Thesamekindofthingdrivestoday'spopulistoppositiontoevolution3:Themostevolutioncouldproducewouldbetheideathat'mightmakesright.'WhenHitlerexterminatedapproximately10millioninnocentmen,women,andchildren,heactedincompleteagreementwiththetheoryofevolutionandincompletedisagreementwitheverythinghumansknowtoberightandwrong.Ifyouteachchildrenthattheyevolvedfrommonkeys,thentheywillactlikemonkeys.An 0794 Richard Dawkins - A Devils Chaplain (2003).pdf Richard Dawkins - A Devils Cha rgw87 794 0 2009-11-12 AuthorofUnweavingtheRainbowandTheAncestor'sTaleRICHARDDAWKINSADEVIL'SCHAPLAINFLECTIONSONHOPE,LIES,SCIENcfNt4JDL0VE-NEWYORKTIMESBOOK^fcEVIEWAsuperbwriter.Dawkinsunashamedlyandgloriouslydelightsinscience."-NEWREPUBLICMARINERBOOKSPraiseforRichardDawkinsandADEVIL'SCHAPLAIN"Oneofthebest-knownscientistsandwritersofourtime.Daw-kinsunashamedlyandgloriouslydelightsinscience.Ifanythingissacredtohimitisthetruthandthepatientroadtoit.Heisasuperbwriter,andagreatadvocateforsanity,andanendlesslyinformativeresource."NewRepublic"Dawkins.isamanoffirmopinions,whichheexpresseswithclarityandpunch."ScientificAmerican"Outstandinglygood.Whatunifiestheessaysisalsowhatani-matesthem:aspiritofeducatedclarity,ofintellectualprobity,oftruthandcourage.Heisajoytoread,notonlyforthebeautyofhisprosebutfortheeleganceandpowerofhisarguments."LiteraryReview"Scienceasasourceofjoyshinesthroughthesepages.Thelucid-nessofhisvisionisextraordinary."TimeOut"Thiscollectionofessayspennedbyoneoftheworld'spreeminentevolutionarybiologistsplumbstheauthor'scommitmenttoscien-tifictruthpursuedthroughsolidevidenceandreason."ScienceNews"Dawkins'senthusiasmforthediversityoflifeonthisplanetshouldprovecontagious."PublishersWeekly"Apleasure-inducingvoyageintoscientificprinciples.brilliantlypresentedandcelebrated."KirkusReviews"Afierceadvocateofempiricalscienceoversuperstition.Evenathismostuncompromising,heevokesasinceresenseofwonderatthephysicalworld."LibraryJournal,selectedasaBestSci-TechBookoftheYearTBooksbyRichardDawkinsTheSelfishGeneTheExtendedPhenotypeTheBlindWatchmakerRiverOutofEdenClimbingMountImprobableUnweavingtheRainbowADevil'sChaplainTheAncestor'sTaleADEVIL'SCHAPLAINREFLECTIONSONHOPE,LIES,SCIENCE,ANDLOVERichardDawkinsAMarinerBookHoughtonMifflinCompanyBoston-NewYorkFirstMarinerBooksedition2004Copyright2003byRichardDawkinsAllrightsreservedForinformationaboutpermissiontoreproduceselectionsfromthisbook,writetoPermissions,HoughtonMifflinCompany,215ParkAvenueSouth,NewYork,NewYork10003.VisitourWebsite:www.houghtonmifflinbooks.com.LibraryofCongressCataloging-in-PublicationDataDawkins,Richard,1941-Adevil'schaplain:reflectionsonhope,lies,science,andlove/RichardDawkins.p.cm.Includesbibliographicalreferencesandindex.ISBN0-618-33540-4ISBN0-618-48539-2(pbk.)1.Evolution(Biology)2.SciencePhilosophy.3.Religionandscience.I.Title.QH366.2.D3732003500dc212003050859PrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaQUM1098765432Theauthorisgratefulforpermissiontoreprintthefollowing:"WhatIsTrue?":publishedas"HallofMirrors"inForbesASAP,October2,2000.ReprintedbypermissionofForbesASAP,2003ForbesInc."CrystallineTruthandCrystalBalls":publishedintheSundayTelegraph.CopyrightRichardDawkins/TelegraphGroupLtd.1998."PostmodernismDisrobed":reprintedbypermissionfromNature394,pp.141-3(1998).Copyright1998MacmillanPublishersLtd."DarwinTriumphant":fromManandBeastRevisited,editedbyMichaelH.RobinsonandLionelTiger,SmithsonianInstitutionPress,Washington,D.C.Copyright1991bySmithsonianInstitution.Usedbypermissionofthepublisher."TheInformationChallenge":originallypublishedinDecember1998intheofficialjournalofAustralianskeptics,TheSkeptic,vol.18,no.4.Reprintedbypermission."SonofMoore'sLaw":fromTheNextFiftyYears,editedbyJ.Brockman,VintageBooks,RandomHouse,Inc.ReprintedbypermissionofVintageBooks."ChineseJunkandChineseWhispers":publishedastheforewordtoTheMemeMachinebySusanBlackmore,OxfordUniversityPress,1999.ReprintedbypermissionofOxfordUniversityPress."VirusesoftheMind":publishedinDennettandHisCritics:DemystifyingMind,editedbyB.Dahlbom,Blackwell,1993.ReprintedbypermissionofBlackwellPublishing."TheGreatConvergence":publishedas"SnakeOilandHolyWater"inForbesASAP,October4,1999.ReprintedbypermissionofForbesASAP,2003ForbesInc."RejoicinginMultifariousNature":reprintedbypermissionfromNature276,pp.121-3(1978).Copyright1978MacmillanPublishersLtd."HumanChauvinism":reprintedbypermissionfromEvolution51,no.3,pp.1015-20(1997)."TheLionChildren":publishedastheforewordtoTheLionChildren,byAngus,Maisie,andTraversMcNeice,OrionPublishingGroup,2001.ReprintedbypermissionoftheOrionPublishingGroupLtd.CONTENTSIntroductiontotheAmericanEdition11ScienceandSensibility51.1ADevil'sChaplain81.2WhatisTrue?141.3GapsintheMind201.4Science,GeneticsandEthics:MemoforTonyBlair271.5TrialByJury381.6CrystallineTruthandCrystalBalls421.7PostmodernismDisrobed471.8TheJoyofLivingDangerously:SandersonofOundle542LightWillBeThrown612.1LightWillBeThrown632.2DarwinTriumphant782.3The'InformationChallenge'912.4GenesAren'tUs1042.5SonofMoore'sLaw1073TheInfectedMind1173.1ChineseJunkandChineseWhispers1193.2VirusesoftheMind1283.3TheGreatConvergence1463.4DollyandtheClothHeads1523.5TimetoStandUp156CEOHervorheben4TheyToldMe,Heraclitus1634.1LamentforDouglas1654.2EulogyforDouglasAdams1684.3EulogyforW.D.Hamilton1714.4SnakeOil1795EventheRanksofTuscany1875.1RejoicinginMultifariousNature1905.2TheArtoftheDevelopable1945.3Hallucigenia,WiwaxiaandFriends2035.4HumanChauvinismandEvolutionaryProgress2065.5UnfinishedCorrespondencewithaDarwinianHeavyweight2186ThereisAllAfricaandherProdigiesinUs2236.1EcologyofGenes2256.2OutoftheSoulofAfrica2286.3ISpeakofAfricaandGoldenJoys2316.4HeroesandAncestors2347APrayerforMyDaughter2417.1GoodandBadReasonsforBelieving242Endnotes249Index256viForJulietonherEighteenthBirthdayIINTRODUCTIONTOTHEAMERICANEDITIONThisbookisapersonalselectionfromamongallthearticlesandlec-tures,tiradesandreflections,bookreviewsandforewords,tributesandeulogiesthatIhavepublished(orinsomecasesnotpublished)over25years.Therearemanythemeshere,somearisingoutofDarwinismorscienceingeneral,someconcernedwithmorality,somewithreligion,education,justice,mourning,Africa,historyofscience,somejustplainpersonal-orwhatthelateCarlSaganmighthavecalledloveletterstoscienceandrationality.ThoughIadmittooccasionalflamesof(entirelyjustified)irritationinmywriting,Iliketothinkthatthegreaterpartofitisgood-humoured,perhapsevenhumorous.Wherethereispassion,well,thereismuchtobepassionateabout.Wherethereisanger,Ihopeitisacontrolledanger.Wherethereissadness,Ihopeitneverspillsoverintodespairbutstilllookstothefuture.Butmostlyscienceis,forme,asourceoflivingjoy,andIhopeitshowsinthesepages.Thebookisdividedintosevensections,chosenandarrangedbythecompilerLathaMenoninclosecollaborationwithme.Withallthepolymathic,literateintelligenceyouwouldexpectoftheexecutiveeditorofEncartaEncyclopedia'sWorldEnglishEdition,Lathahasprovedtobeaninspiredanthologist.Ihavewrittenpreamblestoeachofthesevensections,inwhichIhavereflectedonthepiecesLathathoughtworthyofreprintingandtheconnectionsamongthem.Herswasthedifficulttask,andIamfilledwithadmirationforhersimultaneousgraspofvastlymoreofmywritingsthanareherereproduced,andfortheskillwithwhichsheachievedasubtlerbalanceofthemthanIthoughttheypossessed.Butasforwhatshehadtochoosefrom,theresponsibilityis,ofcourse,mine.Itisnotpossibletolistallthepeoplewhohelpedwiththeindividualpieces,spreadastheyareover25years.HelpwiththebookitselfcamefromYanWong,ChristineDeBlase-Ballstadt,MichaelDover,LauravanlDam,CatherineBradley,AnthonyCheethamand,ofcourse,LathaMenonherself.MygratitudetoCharlesSimonyi-somuchmorethanabenefactor-isunabated.Andmywife,LallaWard,continuestolendherencouragement,heradviceandherfine-tunedearforthemusicoflanguage.RichardDawkinsADEVIL'SCHAPLAINilljstiiSCIENCEANDSENSIBILITYThefirstessayinthisvolume,ADevil'sChaplain(1.1),hasnotpreviouslybeenpublished.Thetitle,borrowedbythebook,isexplainedintheessayitself.Thesecondessay,WhatisTrue?(1.2),wasmycontributiontoasymposiumofthatname,inForbesASAPmagazine.Scientiststendtotakearobustviewoftruthandareimpatientofphilosophicalequivocationoveritsrealityorimportance.It'shardenoughcoaxingnaturetogiveuphertruths,withoutspectatorsandhangers-onstrewinggratuitousobstaclesinourway.Myessayarguesthatweshouldatleastbeconsistent.Truthsabouteverydaylifearejustasmuch-oraslittle-opentophilosophicaldoubtasscientifictruths.Letusshundoublestandards.AttimesIfearturningintoadoublestandardsbore.Itstartedinchild-hoodwhenmyfirsthero,DoctorDolittle(hereturnedirresistiblytomindwhenIreadtheNaturalist'sVoyageofmyadulthero,CharlesDarwin),raisedmyconsciousness,toborrowausefulpieceoffeministjargon,aboutourtreatmentofanimals.Non-humananimalsIshouldsay,for,ofcourse,weareanimals.Themoralphilosophermostjustlycreditedwithraisingtoday'sconsciousnessinthisdirectionisPeterSinger,latelymovedfromAustraliatoPrinceton.HisTheGreatApeProjectaimstowardsgrantingtheothergreatapes,asnearasispracticallypossible,civilrightsequivalenttothoseenjoyedbythehumangreatape.Whenyoustopandaskyourselfwhythisseemssoimmediatelyridiculous,theharderyouthink,thelessridiculousitseems.Cheapcrackslike'Isupposeyou'llneedreinforcedballot-boxesforgorillas,then?'aresoondispatched:wegiverights,butnotthevote,tochildren,lunaticsandMembersoftheHouseofLords.ThebiggestobjectiontotheGAPis'Wherewillitallend?Rightsforoysters?'(BertrandRussell'squip,inasimilarcontext).Wheredoyoudrawtheline?GapsintheMind(1.3),myowncontributiontotheGAPbook,usesanevolutionaryargumenttoshowthatweshouldnotbeinthebusinessofdrawinglinesinthefirstplace.There'snolawofnaturethatsaysboundarieshavetobeclear-cut.5SCIENCEANDSENSIBILITYInDecember2000IwasamongthoseinvitedbyDavidMilibandMP,thenHeadofthePrimeMinister'sPolicyUnitandnowMinisterforSchoolStandards,towriteamemoonaparticularsubjectforTonyBlairtoreadovertheChristmasholiday.MybriefwasScience,Genetics,RiskandEthics(1.4)andIreproducemy(previouslyunpublished)contributionhere(eliminatingRiskandsomeotherpassagestoavoidoverlapwithotheressays).Anyproposaltocurtail,inthesmallestdegree,therightoftrialbyjuryisgreetedwithwailsofaffront.OnthethreeoccasionswhenIhavebeencalledtoserveonajury,theexperienceproveddisagreeableanddis-illusioning.Muchlater,twogrotesquelyover-publicizedtrialsintheUnitedStatespromptedmetothinkthroughacentralreasonformydistrustofthejurysystem,andtowriteitdownasTrialByJury(1.5).Crystalsarefirstoutoftheboxoftrickstotedbypsychics,mystics,mediumsandothercharlatans.MypurposeinthenextarticlewastoexplaintherealmagicofcrystalstothereadersofaLondonnewspaper,theSundayTelegraph.Atonetimeitwasonlythelow-gradetabloidnewspapersthatencouragedpopularsuperstitionslikecrystal-gazingorastrology.Nowadayssomeup-marketnewspapers,includingtheTelegraph,havedumbeddowntotheextentofprintingaregularastrologycolumn,whichiswhyIacceptedtheirinvitationtowriteCrystallineTruthandCrystalBalls(1.6).Amoreintellectualspeciesofcharlatanisthetargetofthenextessay,PostmodernismDisrobed(1.7).Dawkins'LawoftheConservationofDifficultystatesthatobscurantisminanacademicsubjectexpandstofillthevacuumofitsintrinsicsimplicity.Physicsisagenuinelydifficultandprofoundsubject,sophysicistsneedto-anddo-workhardtomaketheirlanguageassimpleaspossible('butnosimpler,'rightlyinsistedEinstein).Otheracademics-somewouldpointthefingeratcontinentalschoolsofliterarycriticismandsocialscience-sufferfromwhatPeterMedawar(Ithink)calledPhysicsEnvy.Theywanttobethoughtprofound,buttheirsubjectisactuallyrathereasyandshallow,sotheyhavetolanguageituptoredressthebalance.ThephysicistAlanSokalperpetratedablissfullyfunnyhoaxontheEditorial'Collective'(whatelse?)ofaparticularlypretentiousjournalofsocialstudies.Afterwards,togetherwithhiscolleagueJeanBricmont,hepublishedabook,IntellectualImpostures,ablydocumentingthisepidemicofFashionableNonsense(astheirbookwasretitledintheUnitedStates).'PostmodernismDisrobed'ismyreviewofthishilariousbutdisquietingbook.Imustadd,thefactthattheword'postmodernism'occursinthetitlegivenmebytheEditorsofNaturedoesnotimplythatI(orthey)knowwhatitmeans.Indeed,itismybeliefthatitmeansnothingatall,exceptinthe6SCIENCEANDSENSIBILITYrestrictedcontextofarchitecturewhereitoriginated.Irecommendthefollowingpractice,wheneveranybodyusesthewordinsomeothercontext.Stoptheminstantlyandask,inaneutralspiritoffriendlycuriosity,whatitmeans.NeveroncehaveIheardanythingthatevenremotelyapproachesausable,orevenfaintlycoherent,definition.Thebestyou'llgetisanervoustitterandsomethinglike,'YesIagree,itisaterriblewordisn'tit,butyouknowwhatImean.'Wellno,actually,Idon't.Asalifelongteacher,Ifretaboutwherewegowrongineducation.Ihearhorrorstoriesalmostdailyofambitiousparentsorambitiousschoolsruiningthejoyofchildhood.Anditstartswretchedlyearly.Asix-year-oldboyreceives'counselling'becauseheis'worried'thathisperformanceinmathematicsisfallingbehind.Aheadmistresssummonstheparentsofalittlegirltosuggestthatsheshouldbesentforexternaltuition.Theparentsexpostulatethatitistheschool'sjobtoteachthechild.Whyisshefallingbehind?Sheisfallingbehind,explainstheheadmistresspatiently,becausetheparentsofalltheotherchildrenintheclassarepayingforthemtogotoexternaltutors.Itisnotjustthejoyofchildhoodthatisthreatened.Itisthejoyoftrueeducation:ofreadingforthesakeofawonderfulbookratherthanforanexam;offollowingupasubjectbecauseitisfascinatingratherthanbecauseitisonasyllabus;ofwatchingagreatteacher'seyeslightupforsheerloveofthesubject.TheJoyofLivingDangerously:SandersonofOundle(1.8)isanattempttobringbackfromthepastthespiritofjustsuchagreatteacher.78%:IADevil'sChaplainDarwinwaslessthanhalfjokingwhenhecoinedthephraseDevil'sChaplaininalettertohisfriendHookerin1856.WhatabookaDevil'sChaplainmightwriteontheclumsy,wasteful,blunderinglowandhorridlycruelworksofnature.Aprocessoftrialanderror,completelyunplannedandonthemassivescaleofnaturalselection,canbeexpectedtobeclumsy,wastefulandblundering.Ofwastethereisnodoubt.AsIhaveputitbefore,theracingeleganceofcheetahsandgazellesisboughtathugecostinbloodandthesufferingofcountlessantecedentsonbothsides.Clumsyandblunderingthoughtheprocessundoubtedlyis,itsresultsareopposite.Thereisnothingclumsyaboutaswallow;nothingblunderingaboutashark.Whatisclumsyandblundering,bythestandardsofhumandrawingboards,istheDarwinianalgorithmthatledtotheirevolution.Asforcruelty,hereisDarwinagain,inalettertoAsaGrayof1860:IcannotpersuademyselfthatabeneficentandomnipotentGodwouldhavedesignedlycreatedtheIchneumonidaewiththeexpressintentionoftheirfeedingwithinthelivingbodiesofCaterpillars.Darwin'sFrenchcontemporaryJeanHenriFabredescribedsimilarbehaviourinadiggerwasp,Ammophila:Itisthegeneralrulethatlarvaepossessacentreofinnervationforeachsegment.ThisissoinparticularwiththeGreyWorm,thesacrificialvictimoftheHairyAmmophila.TheWaspisacquaintedwiththisanatomicalsecret:shestabsthecaterpillaragainandagain,fromendtoend,segmentbysegment,ganglionbyganglion.1Darwin'sIchneumonidae,likeFabre'sdiggerwasps,stingtheirpreynottokillbuttoparalyse,sotheirlarvaecanfeedonfresh(live)meat.As8ADEVIL'SCHAPLAINDarwinclearlyunderstood,blindnesstosufferingisaninherentcon-sequenceofnaturalselection,althoughonotheroccasionshetriedtoplaydownthecruelty,suggestingthatkillingbitesaremercifullyswift.ButtheDevil'sChaplainwouldbeequallyswifttopointoutthatifthereismercyinnature,itisaccidental.Natureisneitherkindnorcruelbutindifferent.Suchkindnessasmayappearemergesfromthesameimperativeasthecruelty.InthewordsofoneofDarwin'smostthoughtfulsuccessors,GeorgeC.Williams2,Withwhatotherthancondemnationisapersonwithanymoralsensesupposedtorespondtoasysteminwhichtheultimatepurposeinlifeistobebetterthanyourneighboratgettinggenesintofuturegenerations,inwhichthosesuccess-fulgenesprovidethemessagethatinstructsthedevelopmentofthenextgeneration,inwhichthatmessageisalways'exploityourenvironment,includ-ingyourfriendsandrelatives,soastomaximizeourgenes'success',inwhichtheclosestthingtoagoldenruleis'don'tcheat,unlessitislikelytoprovideanetbenefit'?BernardShawwasdriventoembraceaconfusedideaofLamarckianevolutionpurelybecauseofDarwinism'smoralimplications.Hewrote,inthePrefacetoBacktoMethuselah:Whenitswholesignificancedawnsonyou,yourheartsinksintoaheapofsandwithinyou.Thereisahideousfatalismaboutit,aghastlyanddamnablereductionofbeautyandintelligence,ofstrengthandpurpose,ofhonorandaspiration.HisDevil'sDisciplewasanaltogetherjollierroguethanDarwin'sChaplain.Shawdidn'tthinkofhimselfasreligious,buthehadthatchildlikeinabilitytodistinguishwhatistruefromwhatwe'dliketobetrue.Thesamekindofthingdrivestoday'spopulistoppositiontoevolution3:Themostevolutioncouldproducewouldbetheideathat'mightmakesright.'WhenHitlerexterminatedapproximately10millioninnocentmen,women,andchildren,heactedincompleteagreementwiththetheoryofevolutionandincompletedisagreementwitheverythinghumansknowtoberightandwrong.Ifyouteachchildrenthattheyevolvedfrommonkeys,thentheywillactlikemonkeys.An 0794 49 / Richard+Dawkins+-+A+Devils+Chaplain+(2003).pdf 1 7.5MB [] Richard Dawkins - A Devils Chaplain (2003).pdf 44 4.9MB -[] Richard+Dawkins+-+A+Devils+Chaplain+(2003).pdf 784 7.5MB Richard+Dawkins[] 2003A Devil's Chaplain.pdf 36 7.5MB Richard Dawkins 2003 A devil's chaplain[] Richard Dawkins, The Ancestors Tale.pdf 1 29.5MB [] Richard Dawkins, The Ancestors Tale.pdf 573 29.5MB darwin, evolution, science, biology[] Richard Dawkins, The Ancestor's Tale.pdf 20 29.5MB good[] RichardDawkins-RiveroutofEden.pdf 1 1.3MB [] Richard+Dawkins+-+The+Blind+Watchmaker.pdf 2 7.7MB [] Richard.Dawkins.-.The.God.Delusion.(2007).pdf 1068 7.7MB [] / Methods in Mind 1209 3.4MB [] Human - The Scie 874 5.3MB [] Power, Sex, Suic 774 2.8MB [] Sexual Selection 401 3.4MB [] Darwin's Ghost - 492 4.0MB [] Evolutionary Psy 539 15.1MB [] Darwin, His Daug 285 5.5MB [] Moral Psychology 499 1.3MB [] The End of Faith 493 1.7MB [] The Grand Design 2063 10.4MB [] New Testament Ap 225 35.3MB [] The Uses of Argu 299 2.3MB Stephen Toulmin[] Breaking the Spe 546 1.7MB Daniel C. 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